A particularly interesting application of diamond based quantum sensing is the detection of nuclear magnetic resonance on nanometer scales, including .. Read more the detection of individual nuclear spins or small ensembles of external nuclear spins. Single nitrogen vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond currently have sufficient sensitivity for detecting single external nuclear spins and resolve their position within a few angstroms. The ability to bring the sensor close to biomolecules by implantation of single NV centers and attachment of proteins to the surface of diamond enabled the first proof of principle demonstration of proteins labeled by paramagnetic markers and label-free detection of the signal from a single protein. Single-molecule nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments open the way towards unraveling dynamics and structure of single biomolecules. However, for that purpose, NV magnetometers must reach spectral resolutions comparable to that of conventional solution state NMR. New techniques for this purpose including technique that employs quantum entanglement and machine learning will be discussed. Most of mentioned above results obtained so far with diamond centers are based on optical detection of single NV color centers. Recently it was shown that photoelectrical detection of NV centers base on spin selective photoionization can provide robust and efficient access to spin state of individual color center.
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